The Way of G-d / Derech Hashem is a major respected work by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto.
Sam is using the version translated and annotated by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan in these classes.

Lesson Three covers pg(s) 45-57

Man – Free Will

Man’s free will and his two inclinations.

G-d gave man a free will so that man could choose between good and evil, and not be compelled towards either. Man has the power of choice, and is able to choose either side, knowingly and willingly, and possess whichever he wishes.

Mankind’s first sin resulted in drastic changes in him and in nature. As a result of Adam’s sin, a great change took place, transforming both man and his world to a large degree, entailing many things and having numerous effects.

The amount of evil existed initially was just enough to assure that man would be in perfect balance, allowing him to gain perfection through his own efforts. When man sinned, though, he caused evil to increase, both in himself and in all creation. As a result, it became much more difficult for him to attain the perfection that G-d intended for him.

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